Multiple manifestations of cultural and religious diversity, partly induced by international migration, structure modern societies. In times of economic uncertainty and ethical disagreement, when specific groups feel threatened or discriminated against, identity conflicts thus frequently arise and undermine long-term conviviality. Too often, these challenges are met with reductive solutions based on the fear of the other, which foster social fragmentation rather than cohesion. As the European Court of Human Rights has highlighted, it is therefore essential to draw on international human rights standards in order to articulate legal instruments and public policies that uphold fundamental principles of justice. Drawing on various disciplinary perspectives, the MULTIHURI project “Diversity and conviviality: human rights as guidelines for action” seeks to contribute to this process through critical analyses on four European states (Spain, France, Italy and the United Kingdom) and their comparison with the qualitatively different, historically speaking at least, Canadian experience.